This chapter on science education explores a complex set of conditions that make New Brunswick unique from other Canadian jurisdictions. The Department of Education and Early Childhood Development has two distinct units—one for Francophone education and one for Anglophone education—which means there are two complete sets of curricula, offices, assessments, etc. There are four Anglophone school districts and three Francophone school districts in New Brunswick. Provincial universities offer English BEd degree programs, French BEd programs, and programs for bilingual teaching. New Brunswick has been home to one of the million-dollar NSERC Science Education projects (2005–2010) that forged a number of research and learning collaborations, which are still ongoing today. This chapter describes how these different complexities result in a variety of programs that are meant to support the work of educators of science at all levels throughout both Francophone and Anglophone New Brunswick.